Morning day 10

  • What is a multimeter?
  • What is the difference among BINARY, HEXADECIMAL, and DECIMAL?
  • What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?
  • What did you think about Honors Academy, Exploratory Math?

Answers:                                                                                                                                          -A multimeter is a instrument that shows the voltage, intensity, resistence of an object and it looks like this:



-“Hexadecimal numbers make use of 16 symbols 0 to 9 and additional symbols (A, B, C, D, E, F)”

  -“Binary numbers make use of only 2 symbols (0, 1) to represent any number and it becomes a tedious job to express large numbers.”    

 – “A linear array of digits that represents a real number, every decimal place indicating a multiple of a negative power of 10. For example, the decimal 0.1 = 1/10 , 0.12 = 12/100 , 0.003 = 3/1000 . Also called decimal fraction.”


-The difference between inductive and deductive arguments is that; Inductive argument is an argument that its conclusion is probable from its reasoning while a deductive argument is one that its conclusion is a guarantee from its reasoning. 

-I think this course made as better and bigger persons we made new friends we studied what we didn’t know and we had alot of fun, the teachers were so much fun, arduino was the best thing defenitlly I’m buying one!! jajaja  Great expierince I would recomended a 1000000 times absolutlly beautiful!! Hope we go to Standford university!!


Yesterday’s lesson

Yesterday we investigate our topic (ARDUINO) in our group (ANDREINA) then we used the arduinos and built alot of circuits that we will show to our parents.

Finally we design the city and I had to give my people money.

bye have a nice day!!! ::::)


Standford pre-collage studies day 8

Today in the morning we used the arduinos and made extraordinary circuits that made the light blink, change color, light up many LED. It was awsome and we didn’t wanted to stop, then we did karnaugh maps it was very hard!!!

Finally we started planning our city I’m the mayor of the city it fun but stresing because everyone ask you if the can do that or this ughh!!! BUT I HAD ALOT OF FUN!!


this circuit shows us the and -or


This is the first chip we used it is the QUAD 2-INPUT AND GATE SN54/74LS08


This is teh second chip we used it is the QUAD 2-INPUT OR GATE SN54/74LS32


  • What is a truth table?
  • What is Demorgan’s Law?
  • What is Ohm’s Law?
  • What is double implication?
  • What is an adjacency matrix?

Answers:                                                                                                                                          – “A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebraboolean functions, and propositional calculus—to compute the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments.”

– “In propositional logic and boolean algebraDe Morgan’s laws[1][2][3] are a pair of transformation rules that are both valid rules of inference. The rules allow the expression of conjunctions and disjunctions purely in terms of each other via negation.

– “Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance,[1] one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship:”[2]

I = \frac{V}{R},
– “Implication is used extensively throughout mathematics, and most noticeably in proofs and statements which involve the words“if … then” and “if and only if”and corresponding symbols=⇒ and ⇐⇒ .”

-“In mathematics and computer science, an adjacency matrix is a means of representing which vertices (or nodes) of a graph are adjacent to which other vertices. Another matrix representation for a graph is the incidence matrix.”

day 7 satandford honor academy

Yesterday we learned the difference between the thinking of computers and humans, quite a lot of difference but during htis years technology has been powerful and computer are starting to think kind of the same as humans.                                                                                                  Also we saw:                                                                                                                                    -Boolean Algebra                                                                                                                           -Demorgan’s law                                                                                                                              -Double Imply                                                                                                                                  -Logic Gates                                                                                                                                    – ArduinoImageImage



Standford pre- college studies day 6

Today we basically studied circuits and their functions then once we had all studied we satarted building circuits using resistors,cables, batery etc.. all a circuit needs.                                                We also measured current, voltage and ohm, we were separeted in groups of 3 mine was:      – Sebastian Tala                                                                                                                             -Tomas Aldana                                                                                                                                – Josefina Rovira        


circuit with 1 resistor


In this circuit if you watch closly you can see the light is less brighter, the reason is now they are 2 resistors so the flow is less


Question & Answer

  • What is an assembler?
  • What is an Arduino?
  • What is the Traveling Sales Person Problem? (we did not cover this in class)
  • What is Pre-Fix notation?
  • What are the leaves of a binary tree?
  • What is a complete graph?
  • What is a Finite State Machine (FSM)?

Answer:                                                                                                                                             1) “An assembler is a type of computer program that interprets software programs written in assembly language into machine language, code and instructions that can be executed by a computer.An assembler enables software and application developers to access, operate and manage a computer’s hardware architecture and components.An assembler is sometimes referred to as the compiler of assembly language. It also provides the services of an interpreter.”

2) “Arduino is an open-source platform used for building electronics projects. Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred to as a microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that runs on your computer, used to write and upload computer code to the physical board.”  

 3) “The travelling salesman problem (TSP) asks the following question: Given a list of cities and the distances between each pair of cities, what is the shortest possible route that visits each city exactly once and returns to the origin city? It is an NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization, important in operations research and theoretical computer science.”

4)”Prefix notation is a mathematical notation. It is a way to write down equations and other mathematical formulae. Prefix notation is also known as Polish notation. The notation was invented by Jan Łukasiewicz in 1920. He wanted to simplify writing logic equations”


  • “The depth of a node is the number of edges from the root to the node.
  • The height of a node is the number of edges from the node to the deepest leaf.
  • The height of a tree is a height of the root.
  • A full binary a binary tree in which each node has exactly zero or two children.
  • A complete binary tree is a binary tree, which is completely filled, with the possible exception of the bottom level, which is filled from left to right.”

6) In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple undirected graph in which every pair of distinctvertices is connected by a unique edge.  A complete digraph is a directed graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a pair of unique edges (one in each direction).

7)”A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (plural: automata), or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs andsequential logic circuits. It is conceived as an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states. The machine is in only one state at a time; the state it is in at any given time is called the current state. It can change from one state to another when initiated by a triggering event or condition; this is called a transition. A particular FSM is defined by a list of its states, and the triggering condition for each transition.”